Calatoriile lui Gulliver. Home · Calatoriile lui Gulliver Author: Report copyright / DMCA form · DOWNLOAD EPUB Les Voyages De Gulliver. Read more. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. Gulliver's Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World by Jonathan Swift. Go to the editions section to read or download ebooks. Cover of: Gulliver's .. Gulliver's travels =: Călătoriile lui Gulliver. in Romanian.
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Calatoriile Lui Gulliver (Romanian Edition) [Jonathan Swift] on fernlowlitiltsi.tk * FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Dupa doua zile, imparatul avu cea mai. Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift Gulliver's Travels, or Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, . In perioada in care Jonatlian Swift (1G67—) scria Călătoriile lui Gulliver ( pub). ), iar contemporanul său iluminist Daniel Defoe (—).
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Piratii pleaca in cautarea comorii. Lupta celor doi sfarsi cu ranirea usoara a lui Jim si cu moartea lui Hands.
Cei trei pirati ramasi in viata. Regal v Gulliver. I need not set them out or refer to them further than by saying that I find myself in agreement with the reasoning and con- clusion of my noble and learned friend. Lemuel Gulliver, is my an-cient and intimate friend; there is likewise some relation Aventurile Iepurasului Tup - ro. Calatoriile Lui Gulliver - es. Calatoriile Lui Gulliver nicolai-nosov-aventurile-lui-habarnam. The Luggnuggians ; notice that the a becomes a u in designating the people of Luggnagg are mainly sensible people.
Some of them tell Gulliver about the Struldbrugs or Immortals; these are born with a circular red spot above their left eyebrow, which changes in color as they age. The most severe form of human vanity, Swift shows in the chapter on the Struldbrugs, is the desire to live forever and to escape death.
The desire for eternal life is another species of human pride, the essential sin of human beings. Happy People. Thus even before Gulliver is invited to lavish his eloquence on the theme of immortal life, we have already become suspicious. Tarvin 27 7. They describe to Gulliver the eternal decay which face Struldbrugs and make them yearn for the release of death. Gulliver is convinced of the foolishness of his first response to being able to live forever.
He regrets that he cannot take some Struldbrugs back to England as an object lesson on the folly of the fear of death Chapter Eleven: 1. Gulliver gets to Japan and is warmly greeted by the Emperor because of his letter of recommendation from the King of Luggnagg. Gulliver gets permission to take a Dutch ship heading toward Europe. Also he is not required to trample on the cross, something all foreigners are supposed to do. The Dutch, the Emperor of Japan tells Gulliver, care more for money than their religion since they do not hesitate to trample on the cross.
On April 10, , Gulliver arrives in England and is reunited with his family. Since he had left on Aug. In this voyage Swift propounds his deepest analysis of humankind, but it is not misanthropy.
The Houyhnhnms are not so much an ideal race as a means of criticizing humanity. It is here that Swift obtained the one great tragic vision of his age.
Human beings could be governed by reason and should be governed by reason, but the lower elements of the nature of human beings, the very foundations of their existence, have debased what is fine within them. Thus aware of our essential foulness, we may not entirely give in to it. The book is a moral, intellectual, and spiritual challenge to achieve genuine human dignity.
The true pessimist gives up on humankind; but the true benefactor, like Swift, uncompromisingly forces humankind to face the truth and accept its challenge.
The Houyhnhnms are to be seen as only another object of satire, the rational man without emotions. Before the other three voyages, Gulliver was ready to set out on them. Here he is content to live with his family for five months. Only Capt. Pocock talks him into leaving. Gulliver chooses reason, but is rejected by the rationalists. Gulliver rejects bestiality and yet is accepted by the beasts. To answer this question, he places Gulliver an ordinary mortal, basically kind, well-educated, resourceful, inquiring, but also, as his name suggests, a little gullible directly between the figures of impossible perfection, the Houyhnhnms, and the figures of impossible degradation, the Yahoos.
Aesthetic: Yahoos are ugly, smelly, noisy, incontinent, and dirty. They excrete and copulate copiously. The Houyhnhnms are handsome, graceful, clean smelling, quiet, and if they do copulate or excrete, they do it secretly.
Moral: The Yahoos are covetous, angry, envious, proud, lazy, greedy, and lustful. The Houyhnhnms have not one of these Seven Deadly Sins. Instead the Houyhnhnms have two principal virtues: Friendship and Benevolence. Intellectual: The Yahoos are totally irrational. The Houyhnhnms are entirely rational and intelligent. Physically, they resemble a human being, but their behavior suggests Tarvin 30 that of an animal.
They are odious, filthy, greedy, tormented brutes, seemingly possessing no reason. The Yahoos are all disorder and passion, competitive beasts vying for satisfaction and supremacy. Often they are associated with their excrement. The Yahoos are images of what humans would become were they totally devoid of reason and completely removed from civilization. Gulliver comes to the mistaken conclusion that the Yahoos represent humankind, the climax of the book coming when Gulliver has to admit with shame and horror that he is more like the Yahoos than the Houyhnhnms.
Physically, they resemble an animal, but their behavior suggests that of a rational being. Gulliver begins to love and admire the Houyhnhnms, but he makes the mistake of evaluating human conduct on the basis of Houyhnhnm standards. Seen through Houyhnhnm eyes, humanity appears even worse than the Yahoos, for the Houyhnhnms argue that human beings have made use of their small amount of reason for bad purposes greed, war, etc.
They know neither love nor grief nor lust nor ambition. With calm they face the major processes of life, marriage, childbirth, accident, and death. Tarvin 31 9. They eat, sleep, and exercise wisely. They believe in universal benevolence as an ideal, and accordingly have no personal ties or attachments. The family is effectually abolished; marriage is arranged by friends; husband and wife like one another and their own children just as much and as little as they like everyone else.
Sex is accepted as normal, but only for the purpose of procreation. They have no intellectual curiosity; their language, their arts, and their sciences are purely functional and restricted to the bare necessities of harmonious social existence.
From a human perspective, the Houyhnhnms can be seen as merely grotesque and at times ridiculous. Which is the correct view of human nature? The answer that Gulliver comes to—that human beings are Yahoos—is probably not the one Swift advocates. The Yahoos are not humanity any more than are the Houyhnhnms.
Deluded by his worship of pure reason, Gulliver commits the error of the Houyhnhnms in equating human beings with the Yahoos.
Gulliver assumes that because human beings cannot be Houyhnhnms, they must be Yahoos. It is Gulliver, not Swift, who is dazzled by the Houyhnhnms and who aspires to rise above the human condition and become all reason. He is surely right in recognizing and hating the Yahoo elements in human beings, but just as surely he is ridiculous in seeing only those elements and in admiring so unqualifiedly the rational horses.
Tarvin 32 7. Gulliver is committing the sin of pride because he overlooks the limits of human capability in judging human beings by standards inapplicable to humankind. In judging humanity by Houyhnhnm standards, Gulliver grows alienated from his race and finds it unbearable to return to live among human beings. Don Pedro de Mendez, the Spanish captain who rescues Gulliver, is basically a kind and caring man, but Gulliver regards him with repulsion, repelled by his clothes, food, and odor.
Gulliver does not see how greatly he differs from Yahoos in the clothes he wears, in his cleanliness vs. Rather, a human being is an imperfect creature who, nevertheless, has the power to live a decent life if only he or she will recognize how limited he or she is. He thus commits the sin of pride as he is in the very process of condemning humans for being proud. Chapter 1: 1. In the first edition of GT, Gulliver leaves on August 2, , but this was corrected in the Faulkner edition to September 7, , since Gulliver had said he was at home for about five months: In the last paragraph of book 3, Gulliver said he arrived home on April 10, five months from then would be in September, not August.
Since Gulliver returns from his fourth voyage on December 5, , he is gone for over five years. Unlike the other voyages, Gulliver has to be coaxed into taking this one.
Tarvin 33 4. Gulliver is the victim of a mutiny by his crew and is at last set ashore in a strange land. In a field he notices several animals, the most repulsive he has ever beheld. Description of Yahoos: They are bearded like goats; their heads and breasts are covered with thick hair, and the rest of their bodies are bare and of a brown-buff color In this first encounter Gulliver perceives no resemblance between the Yahoos and himself.
Other of the beasts attack Gulliver, even dropping excrement on him.
However, they are suddenly driven off by the appearance of a horse—a dapple-gray or spotted grey, which walks softly in the field, looking at Gulliver with amazement. Soon another horse—a brown bay—joins the first, and Gulliver observes that they converse like human beings discussing matters of weight.
Gulliver thinks that the horses are really human beings—magicians who have themselves into horses As foot note 5, p. He follows the horses where they lead him.
In chapter 1, there are creatures whose behavior is bestial, but whose shape is human. Also there are characters whose shape is bestial that of a horse , but whose Tarvin 34 behavior is human rational. Chapter 2: 1. Gulliver reaches a rambling dwelling , and after seeking a human form in vain, Gulliver realizes that the horse is his host.
The graciousness of the horse is seen by his indicating for Gulliver to go in first Gulliver disdains first the food of the Yahoos and then the food of the Houyhnhnms He motions toward a passing cow, and the Houyhnhnms get him some milk An old steed, drawn in a vehicle by four Yahoos, comes to view the stranger along with many other horse-guests Chapter 3: 1.
Gulliver pleases the Master horse by his ability to pick up the Houyhnhnm language.
The Master is surprised that Gulliver is teachable, clean, and civil. These are qualities opposed to those of the Yahoos. Also, Gulliver can speak, a sign that he possesses reason Tarvin 35 4. In this chapter, Gulliver is being forced to see himself through Houyhnhnm eyes.
They recognize him basically as a talented Yahoo. Gulliver says that the Houyhnhnms have no books or written literature Gulliver tells his horse Master of his own antecedents, but the horse does not believe him. Lying is altogether foreign to the culture of the Houyhnhnms, but the Master cannot conceive of a vessel that can sail the seas.
Gulliver tries to conceal one difference between himself and the Yahoos; he wears clothes.
Upon seeing Gulliver disrobed, the Master horse is mystified at the invention of clothes. Gulliver begs his Master not to call him a Yahoo , and he even persuades the Master not to tell other Houyhnhnms about his clothes. Gulliver announces that in his country the Yahoos are the masters and the Houyhnhnms the brutes. Chapter 4: 1. The Master is greatly disturbed. Here speech is for the purpose of being understood, and he cannot comprehend lying Gulliver is again afraid to tell the truth Tarvin 36 4.
The Houyhnhnm Master is indignant on hearing of a Yahoo riding a Houyhnhnm The Master says that Yahoos are physically too incapable to rule Gulliver says that male horses in Europe are often castrated Gulliver praises the simplicity of Houyhnhnm language Gulliver is again being forced to see the Yahoo in himself, but he is not given time to contemplate that he is a human being, a different species from a Yahoo.
The Houyhnhnm Master says he is puzzled by human vices. Gulliver has given examples of the worst of human beings the mutineers , but the horse has concluded falsely that these are the only types of people. Chapter 5: 1. This chapter deals with European wars and laws. Gulliver discourses to his Master on the state of England He tells of great wars caused by the ambition of kings or by a mere difference in opinion Religious wars were particularly hateful to Swift Gulliver forgets that a religious abuse does not make all religion evil.
Tarvin 37 7. His Master hears of this warfare among human beings with horror.
He notes that European people are worse than Yahoos since the latter in their fighting cannot bite each other very well and consequently cannot easily kill each other Gulliver describes the art of war in Europe, mentioning cannons, bullets, powder, and the large number who drown during sea battles He proudly paints the valor of his countrymen when they blew up a hundred of their enemies at once In this country the Yahoos are not blamed for their odious qualities, but when a reasonable creature descends to such enormities the Master wonders whether the corruption of reason is not more dreadful than brutality Gulliver goes on to describe English law; in his world a society of young men is encouraged to prove that black is white and white black, according to who pays them; these are the lawyers Judges are chosen from these men, who all their lives have been biased against truth and justice The Master is further grieved to hear these things Chapter 6: 1.
In Chapter 6, Gulliver expresses major ideas which Swift held: 1 The fear of a money-oriented society. Gulliver describes the use of money: The poor man furnishes by his labors the luxury of the rich England produces more food than it needs, but exports food needed at home by the poor in order to satisfy the follies and vices of the wealthy A long list of vices is Tarvin 38 given here. When Gulliver tries to explain the medical profession, the Master cannot understand the meaning of sickness, since the Houyhnhnms suffer no diseases Gulliver enlarges on the bad eating habits of his countrymen.
Doctors are more skilled in predicting death than they are able to aid a patient in his or her recovery He procures his position by knowing how to get rid of a wife, daughter, or sister—that is, he sells or prostitutes his family—or by betraying his predecessor Swift in his correspondence and Gulliver in his letter to Cousin Sympson call this an interpolation by the first publisher of GT. Swift disavowed that he wrote such flattery. Again Swift and Gulliver are at one here in the following attacks on the ministerial government in England: 1 bribery, 2 greed, and 3 toadyism When the Master horse flatters Gulliver by saying that he must be of noble birth because of his cleanliness and color, Gulliver informs him that he is of humble origin.
Why does the Master compliment Gulliver? Because Gulliver is telling the Houyhnhnm what he wants to hear—a criticism of a place where human beings rule and horses are kept as slaves. Swift did not approve of the movement from one class, say, the lower class, to another, such as the middle or upper class. If a person was born into a family which farms, that person should remain a farmer. Nobility, Gulliver says, breeds idleness and disease, dullness, ignorance, and sensuality , again a prejudiced exaggeration since history shows that many noblemen and noblewomen made significant contributions to society.
Chapter 7: 1. In Chapter 7, the Master Houyhnhnm draws similarities between what Gulliver said about human beings in Europe and the behavior of Yahoos. Gulliver is forced to see human behavior mirrored in the Yahoos. Gulliver informs the reader that his clarity concerning the human race was owing to the greater enlightenment which he obtained while living among the horses Truth became so important to Gulliver, he says, that he wished never to return to his own world again.
The Houyhnhnm Master concludes that human beings had only a small amount of reason, which they used to corrupt themselves He tells Gulliver that Yahoos are physically superior to Europeans in strength, agility, speed, and climbing.
The Master tells Gulliver of how the Yahoos fight over food even when there is an excess of it He continues describing how the Yahoos make war on each other He adds that they delight in a shining stone, which when they find them they hide Furthermore, they have lawyer-like individuals who rob from the others.
Also the Yahoos are guilty of gluttony and they get intoxicated Their greed foments disease They are lecherous , dirty , and the female Yahoos are promiscuous Chapter 8: 1. Chapter 8 deals with two matters: 1 Gulliver is assaulted by a female Yahoo. Tarvin 40 2. The chapter opens with a baby Yahoo befouling Gulliver Gulliver concludes that the Yahoos are the most unteachable of animals, cursing, malicious, cowardly, with no desire to be governed by reason as the Houyhnhnms are.